Analysis of Polish Primitive Ponies Migration under Registration of the Global Positioning System

Ewa Jodkowska, Agata Kuzniak, Ryszard Pikula, Miroslaw Smugala


The aim of the study was to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the migration of a herd of Polish primitive ponies (Polish Konik) held in the reserve area of 664.57 ha. In the first stage of the study (April 2011) there were 11 horses (6 mares, 1 stallion, and 4 foals), and in the second stage (April 2012) - 18 horses (7 mares, 1 stallion, 4 yearlings and 6 foals). The movement of a herd of horses was observed on the basis of indications of Ecotone camera's GPS and Google Maps. A total of 57 maps were analyzed. The 7 habitats and weather conditions were taken into account. The results showed that in both stages of the study the herd usually stayed in the meadows in the mornings and afternoons and in the ancient forest from afternoon to night. The changes in air temperature has significantly affected the frequency and range of the daily migration of horses. At higher air temperatures the herd often migrated, but the range of its stay in a particular place was shorter than at lower temperatures. The choice of habitats by a herd of primitive horses may be an indication of organization of their maintenance.


Polish primitive pony; GPS, migration; nature reserve; habitat; microclimate

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