Caring for Self: Perceived by Persons Living with HIV Infection in Bandung, Indonesia

Kusman Ibrahim, Praneed Songwathana, Umaporn Boonyasopun


The continuing increase of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) in Indonesia is impacting on society. This is a part of focused ethnographic study aims to explore and describe the caring perceptions among Muslim PLWH in Bandung, Indonesia. Twelve PLWH were recruited purposively to participate in this study. Data collection included participant observation, interviews and filed notes during the eight months period. The Leininger’s ethnonursing phases of qualitative data analysis were used as the guideline in analyzing process. Four major themes emerged: (1) accepting the reality of being an HIV-infected person while submitting self to Allah (God); (2) striving to maintain health by performing optimum efforts and supplication; (3) gaining the blessing of God by doing good deeds and worship; and (4) building brotherhood and networking to share, support, and help each other. Findings indicated that the patient’s perceptions of caring were related to socio-cultural context especially Muslim teaching and cultural beliefs. Health care providers, particularly nurses, could take this knowledge to design a culturally congruent community based care for PLWH and their family members.


Caring, Persons Living with HIV Infection, Indonesia

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