Psychological distress and health-related quality of life in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients with coronary artery disease
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients are found to have poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and heightened psychological distress, particularly depression. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is evidenced to be associated with lowered HRQoL and more negative emotions. This study was to examine psychological status and HRQoL as well as identify factors associated with these two areas among ICD patients with a history of CAD. Of 57 ICD patients with CAD, most of them (91.2%) aged 60 or older with mean age 63.04 years old (SD=14.58). A majority of them were married (84.2%) and self-care dependent (89.5%). All participants had a history of SCA experience. Almost 80% were the first ICD recipients and had ICD implantation more than one year. Only two of them had ICD shock experience. The participants were more depressive (mean 3.67±3.57). About 8.8% of patients had severe clinical depression (score ≥8) and 19.3% had severe clinical anxiety (score ≥8). The participants had relatively poorer mental health (mean 58.35±9.31) than physical health (mean 38.15±14.98). Female gender was found to have positive association with anxiety; whereas, having a history of DM has positive association with depression. Self-care dependence was the most significant factor associated with anxiety and depression. Depression was found to be negatively associated with physical health; whereas, anxiety was negatively associated with mental health. By contrast, having occupation and having a history of hyperlipidemia were found to be positively associated with physical health. The results showed that identification of factors enables nurses to develop strategies to remove or reduce the negative effects but to provide more support to foster the positive effects arising from the factors. The study results can direct healthcare policy makers implement strategies for optimizing HRQoL and reducing psychological burdens.