Orthopedic bone plates: Evolution in Structure, Implementation technique and biomaterial

Javad Malekani, Beat Schmutz, Yuantong Gu ., Michael Schuetz, Prasad Yarlagadda


With many important developments over the last century, nowadays orthopedic bone plate now excels over other types of internal fixators in bone fracture fixation. The developments involve the design, material and implementation techniques of the plates. This paper aims to review the evolution in implementation technique and biomaterial of the orthopedic bone plates. Plates were initially used to fix the underlying bones firmly. Accordingly, Compression plate (CP), Dynamic compression plate (DCP), Limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) and Point contact fixator (PC-Fix) were developed. Later, the implementation approach was changed to locking, and the Less Invasive Stabilization System (LISS) plate was introduced as a result. Finally, a combination of both of these approaches has been used by introducing the Locking Compression Plate (LCP). Currently, precontoured LCPs are mainly used for bone fracture fixation.
In parallel with structure and implementation techniques, numerous advances have occurred in biomaterials of the plates. Titanium and stainless steel alloys are now the most common biomaterials in production of orthopedic bone plates. However, regarding the biocompatibility, bioactivity and biodegradability characteristics of Mg alloys, Ta alloys, SMAs, carbon fiber composites and bioceramics, these materials are considered as potentially suitable for plates. However, due to poor mechanical properties, they have very limited applications. Therefore, further studies are required in future to solve these problems and make them feasible for heavy-duty bone plates.


Orthopedic bone plate, LCP, LISS, PC-Fix, LC-DCP, Biomaterial, Biometal, Biocopmosites, Bioceramics, Inert, Bioactive, Biocompatible, Biodegradable

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