A Viability Study of a Lithium Battery Powered Golf Cart

Andrew Larson, Eric Dietz


There is a recent trend among low speed electric vehicle manufacturers to update traction batteries from older, heavy chemistries to new, lighter battery chemistries. In this viability study, a Club Car Villager LSV electric golf cart was converted from the original flooded lead acid batteries to hard carbon/mixed oxide lithium batteries. The range and speed of both chemistries are compared. This paper demonstrates a potential operational savings for ight electric vehicle users. Despite a reduction in volume, the lithium batteries outperformed the lead acid in both range (46.7% increase) and charging time (95% reduction). The range increase was due, in part, to a reduction in battery weight of 62.5%. In addition to range test results, implementation of the lithium battery management system and J1772 charger system used to support this conversion are discussed.


electric golf cart, low speed vehicle, lithium battery, J1772, battery management system

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